Main Article Content
This article critically investigates the type of beta-casein protein traced in cow species' indigenous (A2) and exotic (A1)milk and its adverse effects on health. Medical practitioners and health care stakeholders are the respondents to address the gap between the type of milk intake and non-epidemic diseases. The sample size ranges from 40-50 respondents from the different disciplines of the medical fraternity through survey methods. Analyze Likert scale data using R Software.There is a strong association between the lack of awareness level of public health Imbalances and the benefits of indigenous cow milk against non-epidemic diseases. However, It also establishes the significant effect of bovine milk as an antioxidant on human health.There is a need to explore further robust lacto- epidemiological studies to correlate the prevalence of A1 casein-related metabolic with non-epidemic disorders and the nature of milk allergies and antigens.
Agostoni Carlo and Dominique Turck,(2011), "Is Cow's Milk Harmful to a Child's Health", Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 53,594-600.
Ashish Kumar Ashish, Bakul Rao Bakul and De Kumar Arun (2018), "Milk proteins, health issues and its implications on National Livestock Breeding Policy of India", Current Science,1393-1398.
Bell Stacey J., Grochoski Gregory T. and Andrew J. Clarke,(2014)," Health Implications of Milk Containing β-Casein with the A2 Genetic Variant", Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46(1),93-100.
Benedet A., Costa A., Marchi De M., and M. Penasa M.,(2020), "Heritability estimates of predicted blood β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids and relationships with milk traits in early- lactation Holstein cows",Journal of Dairy Science.103,6354–6363.
Currier W. Russell and Widness A.John,(2018),”A Brief History of Milk Hygiene and Its Impact on Infant Mortality from 1875 to 1925 and Implications for Today: A Review”, Journal of Food Protection,81(10),1713-1722..doi:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-18-186.
Chan E.F. ,Nagaraj S.H. and Reverter A., (2010),”The evolution of tropical adaptation: comparing taurine and zebu cattle “, Animal Genetics, 41, 467-477
Demirel Fatih Ahmet and Bahattin,(2018), "Discussions of Effect A1 and A2 Milk Beta-Casein Gene on Health", Approaches in Poultry, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, 3(2),1-6.
Duarte-Vázquez Miguel Á., Ugalde Carlos García,etal.,(2017), "Production of Cow's Milk Free from Beta-Casein A1 and Its Application in the Manufacturing of Specialized Foods for Early Infant Nutrition", Foods, 6(50),2-15,doi:10.3390/foods6070050www.mdpi.com/journal/foods.
Hajara Aslam, Anu Ruusunen, etal.,(2019), "Unraveled facets of milk-derived opioid peptides: a focus on gut physiology, fractures and obesity", International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition,1-14.. doi:10.1080/09637486.2019.1614540.
Jeremy Hill and Mike Boland,(2001), "Milk Proteins Variants-Relationship with Health and Disease ", The Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, 56(20,117-122.
Kadam B.R., Ambadkar R.K.,. Rathod K.S. and Pandiyan C.,(2017), "A1/A2 Milk and Human Health: A Brief Review", Journal of Environment and Biosciences, 31(2),357-362.
Korhonen Hannu, P. Manila P. and H Gill H.S.,(2000)," Bovine milk antibodies for health", British Journal of Nutrition,84(1),135-146.
Kumari Anu, Kumar Aman, Farooq Sheza and Maan Sushila, (2019),”A1/A2 grading of milk: An enigma or reality”,The Plant Innovation Journal, 8(20),525-528.
Lindmark Månsson Helena,(2008)," Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk Fat", Food and Nutrition Research, 52(1),1821-1823, doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v52i0.1821.
H. J. Korhonen H.J. and Marnila P.,(2002), "Bovine milk immunoglobulins against microbial human diseases", Food Science, Technology and Nutrition,269-289.
Mozammel Hoque Mozammel and Mondal Sukanta, (2019), "Safety of Milk and Dairy Products", Food Safety and Human Health, 127-143, doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-816333-7.00005-9.
Narayan Hegde G.,(2019), "Research on A1 and A2 milk: A1 milk is not a matter of health concern", Indian Journal of Animal Research, 89(7),707-711.
Lucey John A., Otter Don and Horne David S.,(2017), "A 100-Year Review: Progress on the chemistry of milk and its components", Journal of Dairy Science,100, 9916-9932.
Maity Sudipa, Bhat Hussain Aadil, Giri Kuldeep, Ambatipudi Kiran,(2020), "BoMiProt: A database of bovine milk proteins", Journal of Proteomics,215, 3-6, doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2020.103648.
Michalski Caroline Marie and Januel,(2006), "Does homogenization affect the human health properties of cow's milk?", Trends in Food Science and Technology,17,423-437.
Mishra B.P., Mukesh Manishi, Prakash B.,etal.,(2009), "Status of Milk Protein and Beta-Casein Variants among Indian Milch Animals", Indian Journal of Animal Sciences,79(7), 722-725.
Morris C.A., Hickey S.M., Cullen N.G,etal.,(2005), "Associations between β-casein genotype and milk yield and composition in grazing dairy cows", New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 48(4),441-450, doi.org/10.1080/00288233.2005.9513678.
Nile Hariram Shivraj, Park Won Se and Khobragade C.N. (2016), "Occurrence and analysis of aflatoxin M1 in milk produced by Indian dairy species", Food and Agricultural Immunology, 27(3),358-366.
Priyadarshini Priyanka, Mishra Chinmoy, Mishra Bandita, etal.,(2017), "Impact of milk protein on human health: A1 versus A2", International Journal of Chemical Studies, 6(1),531-535.
Parashar Abhishek and Saini Ram Krishan,(2015), "A1 milk and its controversy-a review", International Journal of Bioassays, 4(12), 4611-4619.
Reddy P. Ravi Kanth,etal.,(2016), "Nutritional Significance of Indigenous Cow Milk With Regard to A2 !-Casein -An Overview", International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology,5(5),3376-3380.
Sodhi Monika, Manishi Mukesh, Ranjit,etal. (2012), "Milk proteins and human health: A1/A2 milk hypothesis", Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism,16(5),10.4103/2230-8210.100685.
Schrezenmeir Jurgen and Jagla Alexandra,(2000), "Milk and Diabetes", Journal of AmericanCollege of Nutrition”,1765-1905.
Sun Jianqin1, Xu Leiming, Xia ,etal., (2016),”Effects of milk containing only A2 beta casein versus milk containing both A1 and A2 beta casein proteins on gastrointestinal physiology, symptoms of discomfort, and cognitive behavior of people self-reported intolerance to traditional cow milk”, Nutrition Journal, 15(1), 15-35, doi:10.1186/s12937-016-0147-z.
Truswell AS, (2006), "Further research for consideration in 'the A2 milk Case", European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 60, 921-925.
Wal Jean Michel,(2002), "Cow's Proteins/Allergy", Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 89,3-10.
Wham Carol A and Worsley Anthony,(2002), "New Zealanders' attitudes to milk: implications for public health", Public Health Nutrition, 6(1),73-78.
Abreu Sandra, (2017), "Dairy Products and Obesity in Children and Adolescents", Dairy in Human Health and Disease Across the Lifespan,87-105..
Yan Song, Alina Li, Jie Li and Simin Liu,(2017), "Dairy Products and Chronic Diseases: Evidence From Population Studies", Dairy in Human Health and Disease Across the Lifespan, 424-428, doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-809868-4.00033-9.
Grigioni Gabriela, Biolatto Andrea, Langman Leandro,(2013),”Milk and Dairy Products”, Color and Pigments,Wiley & Blackwell.
Swinburn Boyd,(2004), "Beta casein A1 and A2 in milk and human health", Nutrition, New Zealand Food Safety Authority, 4-43.